The world is scrambling down to control the growing COVID-19 situation. However, new researches show that viruses play a very important part of the role of survival. It is an integral part of mammal’s ability to survive and reproduce. There is a study published in Nature Structural and Molecular Biology. As per this study, it is seen that viruses play a key evolutionary role in the life of mammals. Scientists of Azabu University in Japan and Cincinnati Children’s Perinatal Institute obtains this data. They do so by examining and studying human and mice germline cells. There were two separate papers for the study but they were in the same edition of the journal. Let us see what the findings were.
Importance Of Viruses in the Role Of Survival
The journal reveals two fundamental and distinct processes underlying the germline transcriptions. The scientists also show transcriptomes that are species-specific. They say that these transcriptomes are fine-tuned in the mammalian germline. Besides, it is done by endogenous retroviruses. All the messenger present in the germline cells are also present in the germline transcriptomes. It contains either male or female chromosomes and it passes on to the offspring as inherited genetic material. This is normal when species mate. This basically means that germline transcriptomes combine sperms and eggs and prepare a life. Even though the studies are separate thy do complement each other.
Santoshi Namekawa, the principal investigator of the studies makes a statement. He says, “One paper explores super-enhancers. They are evolutionally conserving and robust gene regulatory elements in the genome. When sperms start to form they fuel a burst of essential regulated germline genes. The second study involves endogenous retroviruses. They act as another type of enhancer. They normally drive expressions to the newly evolved genes”.
Clinical Relevance Of The Studies
The studies together have potential ramifications that are significant for clinical purposes. As per the authors’ dysregulation of gene expression in the male sperm formulation, can lead to birth defects and infertility. Endogenous retroviruses are an integral part of mammalian biology. They can influence gene expressions dramatically. Moreover, they are molecular remnants of retroviruses. They can incorporate the genome and infect the body over time.
The study demonstrates further the molecular process. Besides, the process includes super-enhancer switching taking place in the germ cells. These regulators enhance two molecules and then they act like switches of gene-burst control. While the whole world is dealing with coronavirus, the importance of viruses leave people in shock.